Updated (August 17th)
NDP leader Jagmeet Singh announced his bid for a federal seat today in the riding of Burnaby South, vacated by Vancouver mayoralty aspirant and NDP incumbent Kennedy Stewart.
Burnaby South is over 4,000 km from Singh’s former riding in the Brampton area, but he’s certainly not the first federal leader to leave his home province to seek entry into the House via a by-election.Rt. Hon. Brian Mulroney was elected in 1983 as MP from the riding of Central Nova in Nova Scotia. He gave the seat back to Elmer MacKay when he led the 1984 election from his hometown riding of Manicouagan in Quebec. Rt. Hon. Stephen Harper found a seat close to home in 2002 when he re-entered the House from Preston Manning’s seat of Calgary Southwest. Rebel founder Ezra Levant had secured the nomination but was evidently persuaded to step aside for the new leader of the Canadian Alliance (this was before the Alliance and PC’s merged). Of note, both the Liberals and the PC candidate, Jim Prentice, stepped aside to make way for Harper. The NDP fielded a candidate.
Rt. Hon. Joe Clark made a political comeback to return as leader of the Progressive Conservative Party in 1998 and sought election to the House of Commons in early 2000 when then-PC MP Scott Brison stepped aside in Kings-Hant to make way.
As for Liberals, the longest-serving Prime Minister of all-time, Rt. Hon. William Lyon Mackenzie King, lost his seat in York North in 1925 and sought a new seat in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, winning a by-election there in February 1926. An interesting side note is that Rt. Hon. John Diefenbaker encouraged an independent to run against King in the by-election, then Diefenbaker himself ran unsuccessfully against King in the subsequent 1926 general election. King would continue to represent Prince Albert until the 1945 election when he lost to a CCFer. He sought re-entry into the House via Glengarry in Ontario and retired while representing that seat.
Rt. Hon. John Turner was the newly appointed prime minister, without a seat, when he announced he would contest the 1984 election from Vancouver-Quadra. While he had attended UBC and had a longstanding family connection to BC, he had lived in Eastern Canada for decades and did not pretend too hard that he would actually move to Vancouver. Despite the disastrous national campaign, Turner held on to claim Quadra from the PC’s and the Liberals have held it for the past 34 years.
Jean Chrétien’s return to the House of Commons in 1990 came via the New Brunswick riding of Beausejour. He returned to his home riding of Saint-Maurice
The NDP can look back at the experience of Tommy Douglas. Douglas was defeated in his first attempt to win election to the House of Commons from the riding of Regina-Centre in 1962. The former Saskatchewan premier, and first elected leader of the NDP, had to find a seat out-of-province in… Burnaby. He was elected in Burnaby-Coquitlam in 1963 and 1965. In 1968, he contested Burnaby-Seymour (similar to MP Terry Beech’s current riding) and lost to Hon. Ray Perrault. Perrault was a former leader of the BC Liberal Party and a gritty, grassroots politician. While he would only serve one-term, he went on to a distinguished career in the Senate. As for Douglas, his opportunity to regain a seat was borne from tragedy when Nanaimo-Cowichan-The Islands MP Colin Cameron (grandfather of NDP strategist Robin Sears) passed away not longer after the 1968 election. Douglas won a 1969 by-election there and represented the seat until 1979.
Topical in the news these days is Rt. Hon. John A. Macdonald who was elected in Victoria in 1878. I assumed it was a by-election victory, but he actually contested three separate ridings in the general election that year, and, having lost in Kingston, he chose to represent Victoria where he had defeated Liberal Amor de Cosmos (!). Sir Wilfred Laurier also contested multiple districts and won in both Quebec-East and Saskatchewan provisional district in 1896, choosing to represent Quebec-East.
Green Party leader Elizabeth May announced on August 16th that due to “longstanding parliamentary tradition” she would extend ‘leader’s courtesy’ to Jagmeet Singh by not fielding a Green candidate.
Longstanding tradition? That’s a selective interpretation of history. Here are the by-elections contested by leaders:
Every leader noted above has been contested in a by-election, and since 1962, every leader has been contested by at least one other main political party. The NDP have never extended Leader’s courtesy in a by-election. Even the Greens contested Harper’s by-election. And certainly on a provincial level, neither the Greens nor the NDP honoured the “longstanding parliamentary tradition” of leader’s courtesy to Hon. Christy Clark in her two by elections (Point Grey in 2011, West Kelowna in 2013).
Courtesy aside, leaders need a seat in the House and sometimes have to go far afield to find one. When they are ‘adopted’, sometimes they stay put. Singh says he will move to Burnaby.
But can Jagmeet Singh win Burnaby-South? Presumably, the NDP have polled the riding and believe they can win it. It would be a huge risk, otherwise. It does not appear to be a slam-dunk seat for the NDP though.
In 2015, Liberal Adam Pankratz won election day. It was Kennedy Stewart’s margin-of-victory in the advance polls that saved his bacon. This was a result of two factors – Liberal momentum was still building during the advance polls and the NDP had a superior GOTV machine.
Table 1: Burnaby-South in 2011 and 2015
Liberal gains in 2015 came at the expense of both the NDP and the Conservatives. Pankratz himself, a young, educated multilingual candidate whose father was a well-known BC Lion football player, presented well for the Liberals.
There are other variables to consider.
The federal NDP typically does not do well in British Columbia when there is an NDP government in Victoria. The 1974 election was a disaster for the federal NDP, in the height of the Dave Barrett government. The federal NDP were decimated in the 1993, 1997, and 2000 elections in BC while a parade of NDP premiers governed (though Svend Robinson held his Burnaby riding). Will it be a factor this time? At this point, I don’t think the provincial NDP have angered voters in the manner of previous NDP governments. It’s early days. However, being in power can demotivate activists who are accustomed to fighting the establishment rather than being a part of it.
Singh’s connection to BC is not apparently strong. He will have recruited support during his NDP leadership run in BC, especially from the South Asian community. But he lacks the personal ‘story’ that Mulroney had in Nova Scotia (he attended university) or Turner had in BC. Maybe there is one that I haven’t heard yet, and it may not matter that much anyway.
Another factor is Kinder Morgan. On the surface of it, the NDP have this field to themselves. The NDP Mayor of Burnaby, a formidable force, strongly opposes the pipeline. The Liberals and the Conservatives are on the other side of the debate. Assuming the Greens can be kept at bay (a big assumption), the NDP may have room on that issue. But is the worm turning on this issue? The protest camp has been drawing negative attention. Are people ‘worn out’ on all of the Kinder politics? We’ll see.
Municipally in Burnaby, Mayor Derek Corrigan has ruled since 2002. He has built a strong political machine. For the first time in a long time, he faces a credible challenge this October. Will that divert energies away from Singh’s campaign? Will the winds of change blow away from NDP candidates? Opponents hope, but I know from experience that the NDP machine in Burnaby is real. It will take a lot to defeat them. Singh has to get the most out of the local organization.
About 46,000 residents voted in 2015. In a by-election, the turnout is almost always lower. GOTV will be a huge factor. Not just the ‘machine’ but the motivation of voters to vote. Will they turn out for Jagmeet Singh? He will have to build a connection with them.
Kennedy Stewart’s departure may be another factor. Vancouver mayoralty candidates will be taking shots at Stewart for leaving his post as a Burnaby MP to run in another jurisdiction. It turns out Stewart was living in Vancouver – how is that going over in Burnaby? Issues like “demovictions” are being raised in Burnaby which could make life uncomfortable for NDPers. It may all amount to nothing and the status quo may well prevail. We’ll see how the opposition approaches it.
Singh obviously has the most to win and lose. A win gets him into the House while getting a weight off his back. A loss could be curtains for him.
Some Liberals may want Singh to win, preferring his leadership to an unknown alternative that could present itself in the aftermath of a Singh by-election loss. Liberals ought to be concerned about the Conservatives winning though. As the 2011 results show, the Conservatives were not far off. The Liberals could consider not running a candidate, as was the case with the Stephen Harper by-election in 2002. This would be a bit surprising given their narrow margin of defeat in 2015. They might also yield the seat to the Conservatives if they fail to contest it. We will most likely see all parties in it.
It will be an interesting test of the three parties. We have seen the Liberals steal a Conservative seat in White Rock and the Conservatives steal a Liberal seat in Chicoutimi in recent by-elections. Local factors played a big role, but this by-election will take on more of a national dimension.
The upshot is that Singh is the favourite but there are a lot of reasons why this may not be an easy ride. It’s not a slam dunk. He does not have the advantages of being a sitting prime minister and not especially well-known in British Columbia. The riding was a close call in 2015. It’s a risk, but politics often rewards the risk-takers. Or buries them.